IZiko eliSiseko

THE

IWORD

APRIL, 1910.


Ilungelo lokushicilela, i-1910, nguHW PERCIVAL.

AMADODA NABAHLOBO.

Ngaba ubumnyama kukungabikho kokukhanya, okanye yinto eyahlukileyo ngokwayo kwaye ethatha indawo yokukhanya. Ukuba bohlukile kwaye bohlukile, buphi ubumnyama kwaye buyintoni ukukhanya?

Ubumnyama asikuko “ukungabikho kokukhanya.” Ukukhanya asibubo ubumnyama. Ubumnyama yinto ngokwayo, hayi ukukhanya. Ubumnyama bungathi buthathe indawo yokukhanya nokukhanya, kodwa ukukhanya kubugqibe ubumnyama. Ukukhanya ekugqibeleni kuya koyisa ubumnyama ngokunyusa kunye nokwenza ubumnyama bube kukukhanya. Ukukhanya nobumnyama esibuqondayo ngeemvakalelo azikukhanya kwaye bumnyama ngokwabo, nangona oko sikuqonda njengokukhanya nobumnyama imvelaphi yabo ikukukhanya okuyinyani kunye nobumnyama. Njengento, ubumnyama buyinto ye-homogenible, eyingcambu, isiseko okanye isiseko sayo yonke imbonakalo njengombandela. Kwimo yayo yasekuqaleni, izolile kwaye iyafana iyodwa. Kuyinto engacacanga, ayinangqondo kwaye iphazamisekile. Ukukhanya kungamandla avela kwizilumko ezigqithile kwimisebenzi yokuvela kwaye zingaphezulu okanye zingaphaya kwembonakalo. Xa oqondayo eqondisa amandla abo ekukhanyiseni nakwinto engenanto, ebumnyameni, loo nxalenye yobumnyama okanye ubumnyama, kwaye ukukhanya kubhekiswa kuyo, kuya kusebenza. Ngokuqala komsebenzi, isixhobo ebesiyinto yesibini. Ebumnyameni obusebenzayo okanye isixhobo asisasebenzi Obu bume bezinto okanye ubumnyama buyaziwa ngokuba yinto yomoya. Umoya kunye nomba zizinto ezimbini ezichaseneyo kwinto enye, eyiyemvelaphi, kodwa into yomoya yinto. Iiyunithi ezithi zahlulahlulwe njengezinto zomoya, kunye nokubonisa izinto zomoya zizonke, ziye zanegalelo kubo nakwimvelaphi yomzali ongumsuka wabo kunye nesizathu sezenzo zabo okanye ukubonakaliswa. Ukusetyenziswa kwengcambu ngumzali kunye nomzali wayo yonke into engabonakaliyo yesilinganiselo sobunzima kunye nobunzima bebonke. Ukukhanya kungunobangela wokubonakaliswa kunye nesenzo kwiyunithi nganye kunye nobunzima obonakalisayo xa bebonke. Ukuze into nganye engabonakaliyo, kananjalo kuyo yonke imbonakalo yobunzima iyonke imelwe: umzali wengcambu njengesixhobo kunye namandla okusebenza njengokukhanya. Kwicandelo ngalinye elibizwa ngokuba yimimoya-kunokubakho umzali, izinto kunye namandla, ukukhanya. Ukusetyenziswa kubonakaliswa lelo candelo lezinto ezingabonakaliyo ezibizwa ngokuba ngumcimbi, kwaye ukukhanya kumelwa kwelinye icala okanye icandelo leyunithi enye engabonakaliyo ebizwa ngokuba ngumoya. Yonke indalo okanye ukubonakaliswa kuyabizwa ngaphandle kwento engachazwanga okanye ubumnyama babonakalise amandla okukhanya, kwaye oku kukhanya kugcina umcimbi womoya ubizwa ukuba uqhubeke ngokuqhubekekayo ukusebenza ngalo lonke ixesha lokubonakaliswa kwawo. Ngexesha lokubonakaliswa kokukhanya okukhoyo ngokubonakaliswa kunye nobumnyama yimbonakalo yento esiyibiza ngokuba kukukhanya. Umba obonakalayo ngunobangela wento esiyibiza ngokuba bubumnyama. Ukukhanya kunye nobumnyama kubonakala kusoloko kungqubana kwaye kubonakala ngathi kunika indawo omnye komnye kuyo yonke imbonakalo. Imini nobusuku, ukuvuka kunye nokulala, ubomi nokufa, zizinto ezichaseneyo okanye amacala ajika into enye. Ezi zinto ziphikisayo zenza ngokuchaseneyo ixesha elifutshane okanye elide, kude kube bubumnyama bokukhanya. Elinye libonakala kwelinye njengelingathandekiyo nangona nganye kwenye inyanzelekile. Umntu unaye kuye ubumnyama namandla okukhanya. Emntwini izinzwa zobumnyama kwaye nengqondo yakhe kukukhanya. Kodwa oku akuhlali kuthathelwa ingqalelo. Kwimimandla ingqondo ibonakala njengobumnyama. Engqondweni izinto ezikhoyo zibubumnyama. Oko kubonakala ngathi kuphuma elangeni, kukukhanya kwelanga. Engqondweni izinzwa kwaye ezo zikubiza njengokukhanya kunjengobumnyama xa, ingqondo, ikhanyiselwa ngamandla okukhanya kwengqondo yomzali wayo. Ukukhanya kwelanga kunye nokuqonda okuqiqileyo nako kunokuza kuthi ngelixa ingqondo igxilisiwe ngaphakathi kwaye iphikisana nobumnyama; emva koko siya kubona ukukhanya kwelanga njengembonakaliso okanye isimboli sokukhanya kwangempela. Ubumnyama bunika indawo kwaye butshintshe bube kukukhanya okungapheliyo njengoko kohlulwa ziimbono kunye nezenzo zengqondo. Xa iingqondo zethu sele ziphumelele kungqubano nobumnyama siya kuthi siqonde ukukhanya okuyinyani okukhanya emnyameni nangona ubumnyama ngoku bungakwazi.

Iyintoni i-radium kwaye yintoni eyenzeka ukuba iphose ngokuqhubekayo amandla amakhulu ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa kunye nokulahlekelwa kwayo kwamandla kunye nomzimba, kwaye yintoni umthombo we-radioactivity yayo enkulu?

Kucingelwa ukuba umbhali walo mbuzo uqhelene neenkcazo zesayensi malunga nokufunyanwa kwe-radium kwangoku, njengokufunyanwa kwayo kwi-pitchblende, ukufunyanwa kwayo nguMadame Curie, amandla ayo okukhanya, ifuthe lesenzo sayo kweminye imizimba, ukunqongophala kunye nobunzima bokuya kwimveliso yabo.

Radium yimeko yomzimba wento apho amandla kunye nomcimbi ococekileyo kunokuba ubonakalayo ubonakaliswa kwiimvakalelo. Imo ye-Radium yinto yomzimba ekunxibelelaneni nomnye umba kwaye imikhosi yamandla ihlala icingela njengothuselo-luvo. I-ether kunye nale mikhosi ngamazwe imbandezelo entle kunokwenyama kwaye isebenza ngokwento ebizwa ngokuba yinto yomzimba, nokuba imeko yomzimba yidayimane okanye imolekyuli ye-hydrogen. Ukuba bekungengenxa yento ethe tye okanye ye-hypothetical esebenzisa into yomzimba bekungayi kubakho lutshintsho okanye ukubola komzimba. Intshukumo yobuchwephesha kwimicimbi enkulu ibangela ukudityaniswa “kwemichiza” kunye notshintsho lomcimbi kusetyenziso oluqhelekileyo nanjloko lwenziwa ngoochwephesha.

Umgangatho yinto ebonakalayo ethe yenziwa ngokuthe ngqo okanye yenziwa nge-astral nto ngaphandle kwento yesithathu kwaye ngaphandle kokuguqulwa ngokubonakalayo sisenzo somcimbi we-astral. Eminye imicimbi yasemzimbeni yenziwa yinto ye-astral, kodwa kwinqanaba elincinci kune-radium. Ngokubanzi, iziphumo zentshukumo ye-astral kwenye imicimbi engokwasemzimbeni ayiqinisekanga ngenxa yokuba izinto ezibonakalayo azinakho ukunxibelelana nokumelana nemicimbi ye-astral enikezelwa yiradium, kwaye uninzi lolunye udaba alunangxaki ngokuthe ngqo kumcimbi we-astral njengoko kunjalo. radium. Amasuntswana angenasiphelo kunye angabonakaliyo we-radium ukhona kuyo yonke into. Kodwa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku i-pitchblende ibonakala ingumthombo ukusuka apho banokuqokelelwa khona ngesixa esikhulu, nangona kunjalo. Xa amasuntswana abizwa ngokuba yiradium edityaniswe kwinani elinye, umba we-astral usebenza ngqo kuwo kwaye udlule kumgangatho kunye namandla abonakala kwiimvakalelo.

Umsebenzi weradiyo we-radium awukho, njengoko kufuneka ngoku, ngenxa yokuvelisa okanye ukulahla kwamasuntswana omzimba wakhe. Umba womzimba ohlanganiswe yiradium awuniki umsebenzi werediyo okanye amanye amandla abonakalisa ngawo. I-Radium ayisiyamandla, kodwa iphakathi kwamandla. (Umba uphindwe kabini kwaye ukhona kwiindiza ezahlukeneyo. Kwindiza nganye kubalulekile xa kungasetyenzwa kwaye kunyanzeliswa xa kusebenze. Ke ngoko izinto zomzimba zizinto ezinokusetyenziswa kunye namandla okusebenza indiza yinto esebenzayo ye-astral.) I-Radium ngumzimba apho umbandela we-astral uboniswa khona. Imozulu yinto yehlabathi; Umsebenzi wonomathotholo yinto ye-astral evela kwihlabathi le-astral elibonakalayo kusetyenziswa i-radium yasemzimbeni. Umhlaba we-astral ujikeleze kwaye udlula kwihlabathi lezinto ezibonakalayo, kwaye, njengoko umba wayo ucocekile, ungaphakathi nangaphandle komzimba, njengoko isayensi isitsho ukuba i-ether ikwi-crowbar, okanye njengoko kusaziwa ukuba umbane usebenza kwaye emanzini. Njengekhandlela elinika ukukhanya, i-radium ikhupha ukukhanya okanye amandla. Kodwa ngokungafaniyo nekhandlela, ayitshiswa ekunikeni isibane. Njengomatshini wokuvelisa umbane okanye ucingo lombane olubonakala luvelisa ubushushu okanye ukukhanya okanye amandla, i-radium ibonakala ngathi ivelisa okanye ilahla amandla; kwaye iyenzeka, mhlawumbi. Kodwa isibane okanye amanye amandla ebonakala ngathi avelisiwe awanikwanga zingcingo. Kuyaziwa ukuba amandla ombane awaveli kwi-dynamo okanye kwi-wire yombane. Kuyaziwa ukuba umbane obonakalayo njengobushushu okanye ukukhanya okanye umbane uqondiswe kwicingo. Ngendlela efanayo, loo mgangatho okanye amandla abizwa ngokuba ngumsebenzi werediyo abonakaliswa ngokusebenzisa i-radium ukusuka kumthombo okwangoku ongaziwayo kwisayensi. Kodwa umthombo awuyiyo radium nangaphezulu kokuba umthombo wombane uyi-dynamo okanye ucingo. Amasuntswana omzimba wakhe alahlwa aze atshiswe ngaphandle okanye asetyenziswe ngokungaphantsi kwamasuntswana e-dynamo okanye ucingo lombane ngokwenziwa kwamandla ombane. Umthombo wale nto ubonakaliswa nge-radium iyafana nomthombo wokubonakaliswa kombane. Zombini zivela kumthombo ofanayo. Umahluko phakathi kokubonakaliswa kombane njengobushushu, ukukhanya okanye umbane kunye noko kubonakaliswa nge-radium ebonakalayo kukuphakathi kwembonakalo hayi kumbane okanye umsebenzi weradiyo. Amasuntswana lawo adityaniswa nedynamo, i-generator okanye ucingo, azikho kumgangatho ofanayo nowamasuntswana enziwe ngawo i-radium. Umcimbi we-Astral kunye namandla ashukumayo asebenza kumcimbi we-astral enza ngqo kwi-radium ngaphandle kwayo nayiphi na into okanye ulamlo Okwangoku edlala ngefowuni yombane yenziwa ibonakaliswe zezinye izinto, ezinjengeebhetri, oomazibuthe, abavelisi, ii-nguvu, isitya kunye ipetroli. Akukho nanye kwezi zinto efunwa yi-radium kuba inxibelelana ngokuthe ngqo kwaye yona ngokwayo ivumela umba we-astral ukuba ubonakalise ngaphakathi okanye malunga nawo, i-radium.

Kuyaziwa ukuba umbane wombane awuhambi ngocingo, kodwa ujikeleze ucingo. Kuya kufumaniseka ukuba ngendlela efanayo irediyo-ayisiyiyo radium, kodwa ngeenxa zonke okanye malunga neradium. Oombane bazamile kwaye basazama ukwenza ezinye iindlela apho amandla ombane anokwenziwa ukuba abonakaliswe kwaye alathiswe ngaphandle kokusebenzisa umsi okanye ipetroli okanye isenzo segalvanic. URadium ucebisa kwaye ubonakalisa ukuba ingenziwa njani le nto.

HW Percival