IZiko eliSiseko

THE

IWORD

NOVEMBA, 1915.


Ilungelo lokushicilela, i-1915, nguHW PERCIVAL.

AMADODA NABAHLOBO.

Yintoni inkumbulo?

Imemori kukwenziwa ngokutsha kweempawu, ngeempawu, okanye ngobuchule obuhambelana noko kwenziwa khona. Inkumbulo ayivelisi isifundo okanye into okanye umcimbi. Inkumbulo ivelisa kwakhona impembelelo ezazenziwe yinto okanye yinto okanye isehlo. Zonke iinkqubo ezifanelekileyo ekuvelisweni ngokutsha kweefomati zifakiwe kwimemori yegama.

Kukho iintlobo ezine zememori: imemori yengqondo, inkumbulo yengqondo, inkumbulo ye-cosmic, imemori engenasiphelo. Inkumbulo engenasiphelo kukukhumbula onke amazwe kwaye kwenzeka kuyo yonke indawo kunye nexesha. Inkumbulo yeCosmic kukuphinda kuvelise zonke izinto ezenzekayo kwindalo iphela. Inkumbulo yengqondo kukuvelisa kwakhona okanye ukuphononongwa kwengqondo yotshintsho kudlulile ngalo kwasekuqalekeni kwayo. Akukho sibonelelo sisebenzayo esivela ekubuzeni kuhlobo lwengqondo engapheliyo kunye nenkumbulo yendalo iphela. Zikhankanywe apha ngenjongo yokugqibelela. Imemori yengqondo kukuphinda kuveliswe ziimvakalelo ezibonakalayo ezenziwe kuzo.

Imemori esetyenziswe ngumntu yindawo yememori yokuqonda. Akafundanga ukusebenzisa kwaye akazi ezinye ezintathu-inkumbulo yengqondo, inkumbulo ye-cosmic, kunye nenkumbulo engenasiphelo-kuba ingqondo yakhe iqeqeshelwe ukusetyenziswa kwememori yokuqonda kuphela. Imemori yengqondo ibonwa zizilwanyana kunye nezityalo kunye neeminerals. Xa kuthelekiswa nomntu, inani leemvakalelo ezisebenzayo ukuvelisa inkumbulo ziyehla kwisilwanyana nakwizityalo nakwiminerali. Imemori yokuqonda yomntu inokubizwa ngokuba yinkumbulo yobuntu. Kukho ii-odolo ezisixhenxe zeenkumbulo ezenza inkumbulo epheleleyo yobuntu. Kukho iinzosi ezisixhenxe kubuntu obugqibeleleyo bomntu. Ezi nkumbulo zingasixhenxe okanye ii-odolo zeenkumbulo zobuntu zezi: inkumbulo yokubona, inkumbulo yesandi, imemori yokungcamla, inkumbulo yokuhoya, inkumbulo yokuchukumisa, imemori yokuziphatha, "Ndi" okanye imemori yesazisi. Ezi mvo zisixhenxe zenza uhlobo olunye lwenkumbulo umntu anayo kwimo yakhe yangoku. Yiyo loo nto inkumbulo yobuntu ibekelwe umda kwixesha apho umntu okhumbula azivelisele ngokwakhe kwimpembelelo zelihlabathi, ekuveliseni kwakhona imbonakalo eyenziwe kwimizuzu yangaphambi komzuzu wangoku. Indlela yokubhalisa imbonakalo kunye nokuphinda kuvelise imbonakalo ebhaliswe ngokubona, isandi, ukungcamla, ivumba, uchukumiso, isimilo kunye ne "I" "kunye neenkqubo ezintsonkothileyo kunye nokunxibelelana kwezi zinto ukubonisa umsebenzi oneenkcukacha oyimfuneko" kwimemori , "Ingade kwaye idiniwe. Kodwa uvavanyo lunokuthathwa olunokuba ngumdla kwaye lunike ukuqonda kwememori yobuntu.

Ubugcisa bokufota bubonisa inkumbulo yokujonga-indlela ezibonakala ngayo izinto ezifunyanwa ngayo kwaye zirekhodwe nendlela ezibonakala ngayo kamva ezivela kwingxelo. Isixhobo esibonisa imifanekiso sisicelo esingumatshini sokubonwayo kunye nesenzo sokubonayo. Ukubona kukusebenza kwendlela yeliso kunye nokunxibelelana kwayo, ukurekhoda nokuvelisa kwakhona impembelelo ezityhilwa kwaye zenziwa kukukhanya. Ekufotweni kwento, ilensi ayivelwanga, kwaye iguqukele kwinto, isiqwenga somzobo sisetelwe ukwamkelwa kwenani elichanekileyo lokukhanya, ugxila lubekwa kumgama weelensi ukusuka kwinto eza kufotwa; umda wexesha lokuvezwa-kwefilimu evakalayo okanye ipleyiti elungele ukufumana imbonakalo yento ngaphambi kokuba inikwe, kwaye umbono, umfanekiso, uyathathwa. Ukuvula iinkophe kuvula iilensi yeso; iris, okanye idayara yeliso, izenzekela ngokwayo kubunzulu okanye ukungabikho kokukhanya; ukhozo lweliso luyanda okanye iimvumelwano ukugxila kumgca wombono wento ekufutshane okanye ekude; kwaye into ibonwa, umfanekiso uthathwa ngokwazi ukubona, ngelixa kugxilwe kugxilwe.

Iinkqubo zokubona kunye neefoto ziyafana. Ukuba into iyashukuma okanye ukuba iilensi ishukuma okanye utshintsho lujolise, kuya kubakho umfanekiso ongacacanga. Ingqondo yokubona ayisiyiyo enye yezixhobo zesehlo. Umxholo wokubona yinto eyahlukileyo, ukwahlulwa kukungabonakali kweliso njengoko ipleyiti okanye ifilimu ikude nekhamera. Olu luvo lokubona, olwahlukileyo nangona lunxulumene nomatshini wamehlo, orekhoda imbonakalo okanye imifanekiso yezinto ezifunyenwe ngesixhobo esisehlo.

Ukubona kukuthatha iirekhodi ezinokuphinda zikhutshwe yimemori yokubona. Imemori yokubona iphakathi kokuphosa okanye ukuprinta kwiscreen sombono umfanekiso okanye imbonakalo yayirekhodwe kwaye imiselwe ngumbono wokubona ngexesha lokubona into iphinda iveliswa. Le nkqubo yememori yokubonakalayo iboniswa ngokuprintwa kwemifanekiso evela kwifilimu okanye kwipleyiti emva kokuba ivelisiwe. Qho xa umntu okanye into ikhunjulwa iprinta entsha yenziwe, ukuya kuthi. Ukuba umntu akanayo imemori ecacileyo yomfanekiso kungenxa yokuba kuye okubonayo, umbono wokubonayo, awuphuhliswanga kwaye akafundiswanga. Xa ukuqonda komntu kukhula kwaye kuqeqeshwa, kunokuphinda kuvelise nawaphi na amabala okanye into apho ichukunyiswe ngako konke ukuqaqamba nokuyinyani okwangoku ngexesha lokubonakala kwayo.

Iiprinta zezithombe, ukuba zithathwe ngombala, ziya kuba ziikopi ezimbi okanye imifanekiso yenkumbulo yokubona xa iqeqeshiwe kakuhle. Uvavanyo oluncinci lungaqinisekisa elinye lamathuba enkumbulo yakhe yokubona okanye yezinye iinkumbulo zengqondo ezenza inkumbulo yakhe yobuntu.

Umntu makavale amehlo akhe kwaye abaphendukele eludongeni okanye kwitafile yezinto ezininzi. Ke ngoku makawavule amehlo akhe ukuba awasongele umzuzwana, ndiwavale, athi ke ngelo xesha azame ukubona yonke into amehlo akhe akhangele kuyo. Inani lezinto azibonayo kunye nomehluko awazibonayo ziya kusebenza ukubonisa indlela akhule ngayo kwimemori yakhe yokubona. Ukuziqhelanisa kancinci kuyakubonisa ukuba kwenzeka njani ukuba akhulise inkumbulo yakhe yokubona. Unokunika ixesha elide okanye ukuvezwa kufutshane, ukubona oko akubonayo. Xa esondeza amakhethini ngaphezulu kwamehlo akhe ezinye zezinto azibonileyo ngamehlo evulekile ziya kubonakala zinciphile ngamehlo akhe. Kodwa ezi zinto ziya kuncipha kwaye ekugqibeleni zinyamalale kwaye emva koko angaziboni izinto kwaye anganakho kwaphela ukubonakalisa engqondweni yakhe kwinto awayeyibone ngenkumbulo yakhe yokubona. Ukuphela komfanekiso kungenxa yokungakwazi kwembonakalo yokuma kokubamba into eyenziwe yinto. Ngokuzivocavoca ngokubona okanye kwimemori yemifanekiso ukukhulisa izinto zangoku ngamehlo avale okanye ukuvelisa kwakhona izigcawu okanye abantu bangaphambili, inkumbulo yemifanekiso iyakuphuhliswa, kwaye yomelezwe kwaye iqeqeshelwe ukuvelisa amanqaku amangalisayo.

Olu luhlu olufutshane lwememori yokujonga luya kusebenza ukubonisa ukuba zeziphi ezinye iinkumbulo zezengqondo kunye nendlela ezisebenza ngayo. Njengoko iifoto zibonisa imemori yokubona, igramafoni ibonakalisa ukurekhodwa kwezandi kunye nokuveliswa kweerekhodi njengeenkumbulo ezivakalayo. Isandi sesandi sahluke kakhulu kwisehlo esivelayo kunye nezixhobo zendlebe njengoko ingqondo yokubona yahlukile kwisehlo lwamehlo kunye nezixhobo zamehlo.

Ukuhanjiswa kobuxhakaxhaka boomatshini kunokuveliswa ukukopa intsingiselo yokungcamla kunye nokunuka kwento kunye nokuchukumisa njengoko ikhamera kunye negramafoni zingafani, nangona iikopi kunye neekopi ezingalunganga-kumalungu omntu ezinxibelelana nokubona kunye nesandi.

Imemori yengqondo yokuziphatha kunye nenkumbulo ye- "Ndi" ziimpawu ezimbini ezizodwa zomntu, kwaye zibangelwa kwaye zenziwe bubukho bengqondo engapheliyo esebenzisa ubuntu. Ngomqondo wokuziphatha ubuntu bufunda imithetho yobomi bayo, kunye nokuvelisa le njengememori yokuziphatha apho umbuzo wokulungileyo nokungalunganga uchaphazelekayo. Inkumbulo ye- "Ndi" yenza ukuba ubuntu buchongeke ngokunxulumene nawo nawuphi na umsitho kwizigcawu okanye kwimicimbi ebedla ngokuhlala kuyo. Okwangoku ingqondo engafakwanga inememori engaphaya kwengqondo yobuntu, kwaye iinkumbulo ezisebenzayo zizo kuphela ezinamagama kwaye ezenza ubuntu xa bebonke, ezinomda koko kunokubonwa, okanye kuviwe, okanye otyheliweyo, okanye onambithayo, okanye ochukumisiweyo, noziva evakalayo okanye engalunganga ekuchaphazeleni yedwa njengobomi obahlukileyo.

In ILizwi likaDisemba Kuza kuphendulwa umbuzo othi, "Yintoni ebangela ukuba abantu balahlekelwe yimemori," kunye nokuthi "Yintoni ebangela ukuba umntu alibale igama lakhe okanye apho ahlala khona, nangona imemori yakhe isenokungaphazanyiswa kwezinye izinto."

HW Percival