IZiko eliSiseko

THE

IWORD

DISEMBA, 1915.


Ilungelo lokushicilela, i-1915, nguHW PERCIVAL.

AMADODA NABAHLOBO.

Yintoni ebangela ukulahlekelwa kwememori?

Ukuphulukana nememori sisiphumo somzimba okanye se-psychic okanye sesengqondo. Unobangela osondeleyo wokuphulukana nememori kukuphazamiseka kumaziko e-nerve ebuchosheni, ukuthintela iimvakalelo ukuba zisebenze ngokusebenza kweethambo zazo. Umzekelo: Ukuba kukho iziphene ezithile ze-optic nerve kunye ne-optic thalami, ukuze ezi zinto ziphoswe ngaphandle kwethinta “imbonakalo” okanye into ebonakalayo, oku akunakubambeka. kananjalo ungasebenzisi amajelo alo omzimba ukuze ukhuphele engqondweni isixhobo somzimba esixhonywe kwilizwi. Ukuba ukuhlelwa ngokutsha kwe-nerve nerve-centre ye-nerve kuchaphazelekile, ke "ukuqonda okuvakalayo" akunakukwenza ezi zinto, kwaye ke akunakukwazi ukuvelisa kwakhona isandi esibonakalayo okanye igama lendawo leyo okanye eyile ndawo umbono okwahlulekileyo kuyo. Ukuvelisa kwakhona, kwaye ke kuya kubakho ukuphulukana nememori yokubona, kunye nememori yesandi ngenxa yeempawu zomzimba. Oku kuya kubonisa ukuphulukana nememori yokungcamla kunye nememori yokuphunga, ngenxa yesizathu somzimba. Uxinzelelo kumaziko emithambo-luvo, ukubetha entloko, ukungqubana ngequbuliso ngenxa yokuwa, ukujikeleza kwengqondo ngokungalawulekiyo, ukothuka okwenzekileyo kwisehlo esingalindelekanga, kungangunobangela wokuphulukana nememori yokwasemzimbeni.

Ukuba isithintelo somzimba okanye isiphene kwiintsholongwane kumaziko abo sisusiwe okanye salungiswa, kukho ilahleko yethutyana yenkumbulo yomzimba. Ukuba ukususwa okanye ukulungiswa akunakwenzeka, ke ilahleko isigxina.

Imemori ayigcinwa nangaliphi na ilungu lomzimba, okanye ilungu lomzimba liphela. Imiyalelo esixhenxe yememori: ukubona-inkumbulo, imemori yesandi, inkumbulo-inkumbulo, iphunga-inkumbulo, ukuchukumisa okanye imemori-memory, imemori-yokuziphatha, "Ndi" okanye imemori yesazisi-ekhankanyiweyo ku "Amaxesha akunye nabahlobo," kwinkupho kaNovemba, i-1915-Ukwenza inkumbulo yokuqonda iyonke kwaye iyaziwa njengememori ubuntu. Nganye yeengqondo-iinkumbulo kunye nazo zonke iinkumbulo ezisixhenxe ezidityanisiweyo kunye nokusebenza kunye zenza ubuntu-inkumbulo. Imemori yobuntu inamacala amabini okanye amanqaku: icala lomzimba kunye necala le-psychic. Icala lomzimba lobuntu-inkumbulo inxulumene nomzimba wenyama kunye nehlabathi elibonakalayo, kodwa imvakalelo kunye nenkumbulo yezi zinto zikwiimvakalelo zengqondo kwaye azikho emzimbeni wenyama okanye kumalungu engqondo. Inkumbulo yesimo somntu iqala xa i-elemental yomntu, umntu, elawula ukuhlengahlengisa kunye nokulungelelanisa iimvakalelo zayo ezimbini okanye ezingaphezulu kunye neempawu zazo zengqondo-amalungu omzimba wayo kwaye zijolise kwezi zinto ezithile zomzimba. Ewe, umbono ka "Ndi" kufuneka ube yenye yeemvakalelo ezilungelelanisiweyo kwaye zijolise kwisimo esinye okanye ezingaphezulu ezigxilwe kunye nokusebenza kwamalungu abo engqondo. Inkumbulo yokuqala umntu anayo yokuba ubukho bakhe kwizinto ezibonakalayo kulapho imvakalelo yakhe "Ndi" yobuntu bakhe iphaphama khona kwaye yadityaniswa kunye okanye enye yezinye iimvakalelo zakhe, ngelixa babejolise kwinto ethile yasemzimbeni okanye eyenzekayo. Usana okanye umntwana angabona izinto kunye nokuva ingxolo ngaphambi komqondo “Ndi” uphaphame kwaye abe nokulungelelaniswa ngokubona nokuva. Ngeli xesha sisilwanyana nje. Ngaphandle kokuba umntwana akwazi ukucinga okanye ukuva okanye athi "Ndi" ngokunxulumene nokubona okanye ukuva okanye enye into yokuziva, ngaba ubukho bomntu okanye imemori yobuntu iyaqala. Icala lomzimba lobuntu-imemori liphela ngokufa komzimba, ngeloxesha into esemzimbeni kunye nemizwa ishenxisa kwigobolondo layo, umzimba wenyama, kwaye inqunyulwe amalungu kunye namaziko emithambo yegazi.

Icala elibonakalayo lobuntu-inkumbulo kufuneka iqale ngokudibana kunye okanye ngaphambi kokuqala kwenkumbulo yobuntu. Ke igama elithi "Ndi" liya kuba livukile kwaye liziqhagamshele ngokwalo njengefomati okanye enye yeemvakalelo zengqondo, ezinje ngelahleko okanye iclairaudience, kwaye ezi ziya kudityaniswa kwaye zidibane namalungu omzimba engqondo ukuba lilizwe le-psychic kwaye nomhlaba wenyama uya kulungiswa kwaye unxulumene nomzimba wenyama kunye namalungu awo. Kodwa olu hlengahlengiso lwengqondo kunye nolwasemzimbeni lobuntu-inkumbulo ayenziwanga, kwaye iimvakalelo zengqondo azihlali zivulwa ngokwemvelo emntwini. Iinkumbulo ze-psychic-memory zihlala zihambelana kakhulu nezixhobo zomzimba kunye nezinto ezibonakalayo ezibonakalayo ukuba umntu uhlala engakwazi ukwahlula okanye ukuba nememori yobukho ngaphandle komzimba wakhe wenyama.

Ukuba uhlangothi lwe-psychic lobuntu-imemori lujolise kwizinto zomzimba, ubuntu be-psychic buzakuphela kungekudala emva kokufa komzimba, kwaye ubomi kunye nokwenza kwabo ubuntu kuya kugqitywa kwaye kucinywe. Umnyhadala onjalo uya kufana nengubo engenanto okanye ibala okanye isikhafu esenziwe ngengqondo esidibene nobuntu. Xa iimvakalelo zijolise kwizifundo ezifanelekileyo, njengokuphucula uluntu, imfundo kunye nophuculo lweemvakalelo ngokuzihlalisa ngezihloko ezifanelekileyo kumbongo, okanye umculo, okanye ukupeyinta, okanye ukrolo, okanye umfanekiso ofanelekileyo wobunjineli. , ke iimvakalelo zizibonakalisa ngokwazo engqondweni, kwaye nengqondo ithwala, ngaphaya kokufa, inkumbulo yezo zinto zinobonakalayo zixhonywe kuyo. Ubuntu buye baphuke emva kokusweleka, kwaye iinkumbulo ezithile zobuntu ezinxibelelene nezinto ezibonakalayo kunye nezinto zoko kobu bomi butshatyalalisiwe ngokuqhekeka kweemvakalelo ezenze obu buntu. Apho, nangona kunjalo, iimvakalelo zokomoya ezibonisa ubuntu ezo zichaphazeleka ngezihloko ezifanelekileyo ezinxulumene nengqondo, apho ingqondo ithwala khona kunye nokuvela. Xa ingqondo ibakhela ubuntu obutsha obenziwe ziimvakalelo ezintsha, iinkumbulo zobuntu bexesha elidlulileyo eziqhutywa ngengqondo njengoko umbono uza kuthi, uvelise imizwa kwaye uncede uphuhliso lwabo kunye nezihloko ezithile ababenazo ixesha elidlulileyo belikhathazekile.

Ukuphulukana nokukhumbula ubomi bangaphambili kunye nobomi bangaphambili kubangelwa kukulahleka kobuntu bokugqibela kunye nobangaphambili. Njengoko uluntu lunganayo enye inkumbulo ngaphandle kwemiyalelo esixhenxe yobuntu-inkumbulo, umntu akanakuzazi okanye azikhumbule ngokwahlukileyo kwimbonakalo yobuntu bakhe, okanye ngaphandle kwezinto ezihambelana nobuntu. Ulahlekelwa yimemori yobomi bangaphambili ngenxa yokuba imizwa yomntu omnye ididekile kwaye yaqhekezwa ngokufa, kwaye akukho nto ishiyekileyo ukuze iphinde ivelise njengeenkumbulo ebomini kubomi obulandelayo, izinto ezazibandakanyeka kobo buntu.

Ukulahleka kwenxalenye okanye kokuphela kokukhunjulwa kwezinto ezinxulumene noku kobu bomi kubangelwa kukhubazeka okanye ilahleko esisigxina yesixhobo esisebenza ngaso imemori, okanye ukwenzakala okanye ukuphulukana nezinto ezivelise inkumbulo. Ukuphulukana nokubona okanye ukuva kunokubangelwa sisizathu somzimba, njengokulimala okwenziwe esweni okanye endlebeni. Kodwa ukuba loo nto ibizwa ngokuba kukubona okanye loo nto ibizwa ngokuba sisandi iya kuhlala ingalunganga, kwaye ukwenzakala emzimbeni kuya kulungiswa, ke ukubonwa nokuva kuya kubuya. Kodwa ukuba ezi zinto bezenzakele ngokwazo, akuyi kubakho kuphela ukuphulukana nokubona okanye ukuva, ngokokwenzakala, kodwa aba bantu abanakukwazi ukuvelisa kwakhona njengeenkumbulo zokubona kunye nezandi ababeqhelene nazo.

Ukuphulukana nememori, xa kungengenxa yezizathu zomzimba, kuveliswa ngokusetyenziswa gwenxa kweengqondo okanye ngokungakwazi ukulawula kunye nemfundo yeemvakalelo, okanye ngokunxiba izinto ezisisiseko, ezibangela ukwaluphala, okanye ukubakho kwengqondo Unomdla kwizifundo zokucinga ngaphandle kokujonga iimeko zangoku.

Ukuzonwabisa okungaphezulu kokuziphatha ngokwesondo kwenzakalisa ukwenzelwa ukubizwa; Iqondo lokulimala eligcinelweyo limisela inqanaba lokulahleka ngokuyinxenye okanye ilahleko epheleleyo yememori yokubona. Ukutyeshela ukusetyenziswa kwamagama kunye nobudlelwane bezandi kuthintela ukukhula kunye nokukhula kwento eyaziwa ngokuba sisandi kunye nokwenza ukuba kungabikho mfuneko yokuvelisa njengokhunjulwayo kunye neenkumbulo ezifunyenweyo. Ukuphathwa gadalala kwenkalakahla okanye ukungakhathaleli ukuhlakulela inkanuko, kuthambisa ubizo olubizwa ngokuba ngumnqweno kwaye kwenza ukuba lingakwazi ukwahlula phakathi kokuthanda kunye nokuphinda u-memory-memory. Iswekile ihlukunyezwa butywala kunye nezinye izinto ezikhuthaza kakhulu, kwaye ngokuzondla kakhulu ngaphandle kokujonga ubumnandi bokutya. Ukuphulukana nememori yokuqonda kunokubangelwa kukungabikho gwenxa kwizenzo zokubona kunye nezandi kunye nokuva incasa, ngokutsala isisu namathumbu ngaphezulu kunokuba zinokugaya, okanye ngokubeka kuwo angakwazi ukukugaya. Oko kubizwa ngokuba yiphunga kubuntu obuyinto ephambili, imbonakalo emanyanisiweyo yesini. Izenzo ezitenxileyo, ezichaphazela ezinye izivamvo, zinokuphambanisa kwaye ziphose ngaphandle kokugxininisa imvo yokuphunga, okanye zikhuphele phantsi kwaye zenze ukuba zingakwazi ukubhalisa okanye ukuphinda ziqulathe uphawu lokuthile; kunye, ukugungxulwa okanye ukondliwa ngokungalunganga kunokushukumisa okanye kungalungelelanisi kwaye kubangele ukuphulukana nememori yokuphunga.

Ezi zizizathu zokuphulukana kwengqondo ethile-iinkumbulo. Kukho iziphene zememori ezingezizo ezilahleko zenkumbulo, nangona zihlala zibizwa njalo. Umntu uya kuthenga amanqaku athile, kodwa ekufikeni kwakhe kuloo venkile akakukhumbuli into awayeyithenga. Omnye umntu akanakukhumbula iinxalenye zomyalezo, okanye into awayeyenza, okanye into awayeyikhangela, okanye apho abeka izinto. Omnye ukhohlwa amagama abantu, iindawo, okanye izinto. Abanye bayalibala inani ezindlwini okanye ezitratweni abahlala kuzo. Abanye abakwazi ukukhumbula izinto abazithethayo okanye abazenzileyo izolo okanye kwiveki ephelileyo, nangona benako ukuchaza ngokuchanekileyo ngeziganeko zabo kwasebusaneni. Rhoqo iziphene ezinjalo zeenkumbulo ziimpawu zokutsala okanye zokuphelelwa ziimvakalelo ngokuhamba kweminyaka; kodwa kwanokuqhubela phambili ukwaluphala kubangelwa kukusilela kolawulo lweenzwa ngokulawulwa kwengqondo, nangokungaziqeqeshanga izimvo zokuba ngabalungiseleli bokwenyani kwingqondo. "Inkumbulo emibi," ukulibala, "" ukungabikho-ngqondo, "ziziphumo zokusilela komntu ukulawula ingqondo kangangokuba ingqondo ilawule iimvakalelo. Ezinye izinto ezibangela iziphene kwimemori yishishini, ulonwabo kunye neziyolo, ezibandakanya ingqondo kwaye zivunyelwe ukuba zikhuphe okanye ziphumeze oko ibizimisele ukukwenza. Kwakhona, xa ingqondo ibandakanyeka kwimixholo yokucinga engahambelani neemeko zangoku okanye kwiimvakalelo, iimvakalelo ziyazulazula ziye kwizinto zazo zendalo, ngelixa ingqondo ibandakanyeka kuyo. Emva koko kulandela ukungabikho zingqondweni, ukulibala.

Ukusilela ukukhumbula kubangelwa ikakhulu kukunganikeli ngqwalaselo eyimfuneko kwinto enqwenele ukuba ikhunjulwe, kwaye kungakhangeli ngokucacileyo, kwaye kungabeki tyala ngokunyanzelisa iodolo ekufuneka ikhunjulwe.

Yintoni ebangela umntu ukuba ayilibale igama lakhe okanye apho ahlala khona, nangona imemori yakhe ingenakukhubazeka kwezinye izinto?

Ukungakhumbuli kwegama lakho kunye nendawo ahlala kuyo umntu, kungenxa yokuphosa 'u- "kunye nombono kunye neziphi izandi ngaphandle kokuchukumisa okanye ngaphandle kwengqwalaselo. Xa ingcinga ethi "Ndi" icinyiwe okanye inqunyulwa kwezinye iimvakalelo kubuntu-imemori, kunye nezinye izivamvo zihambelana ngokufanelekileyo, ubuntu buza kusebenza ngaphandle kokuzazisa-oko kukuthi, ukuba nje ayikhutshiwe elinye ilungu. Lowo unamava anokuthi aqonde iindawo kwaye ancokole ngezinto eziqhelekileyo ezazingadingi kuchongwa ngokunxulumene naye. Kodwa wayeziva engento, engenanto, elahlekile, ngokungathi akhangela into awayeyazi nanokuyilibala. Kolu nxibelelwano umntu akanakuba nemvakalelo eqhelekileyo yoxanduva. Uyakwenza into, kodwa hayi ngombono wokwenza oko. Wayesitya xa elambile, esela xa enxaniwe, kwaye alale xa ediniwe, ngandlel 'ithile njengoko izilwanyana zisenza, xa ushukunyiswa yimvelo. Le meko inokubangelwa kukuphazamiseka kwengqondo, kwenye yeendlela, okanye uphazamiseko lomzimba wesimo. Ukuba kunjalo, igama elithi "Ndi" liya kubuyiselwa xa isuswe isithintelo. Ke into ethi "Ndi" iza kuphinda idibane kwaye igxile kwezinye iimvakalelo, kwaye loo mntu uya kukhumbula igama lakhe kwangoko, kwaye azi indawo yakhe kunye nekhaya lakhe.

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